Broadly, devices fit into two categories, those with screens and those without.
Those without being those that are part of the, still not widely appreciated or fully understood, Internet Of Things.
Those devices with screens comprise: phones; tablets; PCs; and TVs.
Of course "phablets" blur he lines between phone and tablet. Plus some laptops blur the line between tablet and PC. Generally though, these terms cover the vast majority of current computing devices and the terms are broadly understood well enough to be universally usable.